This tool has been developed by the World Health Organization as a simple screening tool to pick up the early signs of hazardous and harmful drinking and identify mild dependence.
The FRAX® tool has been developed to evaluate fracture risk of patients. It is based on individual patient models that integrate the risks associated with clinical risk factors as well as bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck.
The FRAX® models have been developed from studying population-based cohorts from Europe, North America, Asia and Australia. In their most sophisticated form, the FRAX® tool is computer-driven and is available on this site. Several simplified paper versions, based on the number of risk factors are also available, and can be downloaded for office use.
The FRAX® algorithms give the 10-year probability of fracture. The output is a 10-year probability of hip fracture and the 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture (clinical spine, forearm, hip or shoulder fracture).
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the best overall index of kidney function. Normal GFR varies according to age, sex, and body size, and declines with age. The National Kidney Foundation recommends using the CKD-EPI Creatinine Equation (2009) to estimate GFR.
The QRISK®3 algorithm calculates a person's risk of developing a heart attack or stroke over the next 10 years. It presents the average risk of people with the same risk factors as those entered for that person.
The QRISK®3 algorithm has been developed by doctors and academics working in the UK National Health Service and is based on routinely collected data from many thousands of GPs across the country who have freely contributed data to the QResearch database for medical research.
QRISK®3 has been developed for the UK population, and is intended for use in the UK. All medical decisions need to be taken by a patient in consultation with their doctor. The authors and the sponsors accept no responsibility for clinical use or misuse of this score.
The science underpinning QRISK®3 has been published in the BMJ - click here for details.