BHIVA guidelines on the management of opportunistic infection in people living with HIV:
The clinical management of candidiasis 2019 (2022 interim update)
Advances in the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral therapy have led to dramatic reductions in opportunistic infections and death. However, late presentation of HIV remains a problem and is a significant contributory cause of death in people living with HIV in the UK. Individuals who are lost to follow-up or who are not able to adhere to antiretroviral therapy long term can also present with opportunistic infection. In addition, an increasing number of people living with HIV are receiving immunosuppressive medications that can alter susceptibility to opportunistic infection for reasons other than direct HIV replication.
The aim of the opportunistic infection guidelines is to help physicians investigate and manage people living with HIV with, or suspected of having, an opportunistic infection. They are primarily intended to guide practice in the UK and related healthcare systems.
The previous BHIVA/BIA guidelines for the treatment of opportunistic infection 2011 are being updated chapter by chapter using the same general methodology; this chapter provides guidance on the clinical management of candidiasis.
The 2019 BHIVA guidelines for the management of opportunistic infection in people living with HIV: The clinical management of candidiasis were updated in 2022. All changes are highlighted.
Supporting people living with HIV and opportunistic infections
Comments received by the BHIVA Secretariat during the public consultation process
Declaration of interests
Declaration of interests from writing group members
Please note: The non-technical summary is less detailed than the full guideline and if you are reading this because it is relevant to your own healthcare, please do discuss any concerns or questions with your healthcare professionals.
Prof David Dockrell (Chair), Dr Daire O’Shea, Dr Jonathan Cartledge, Dr Andrew Freedman
UK-CAB (community) members are involved in the writing and/or proofreading of each chapter, and where not listed as authors are the UK-CAB members of the Guidelines Subcommittee.
The guidelines were peer reviewed by Dr Riina Richardson, The University of Manchester, and Dr Anna Goodman, Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospitals, London.
Guideline updates and date of next review
The guidelines are scheduled for full review by 2024.
Dockrell DH, O’Shea D, Cartledge JD, Freedman AR. British HIV Association guidelines on the management of opportunistic infection in people living with HIV: the clinical management of candidiasis 2019. HIV Med 2019; 20 Suppl 8: 2-24.