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References

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9 Anderson W and Weatherburn P. Taking heart? The impact of combination therapy on the lives of people with HIV(phase 2). London: Sigma Research 1999.

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29 Carrieri P, Cailleton V, le Moing V. The dynamic of adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Results from the French National APROCO Cohort. J Acquir Immune Deficic Syndr 2002;28:232-9.

30 Horne R. Adherence to medication: a review of existing research. In Myers L and Midence K (Eds), Adherence to treatment in medical conditions (pp. 285-310). London: Harwood Academic 1998.

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34 Eldred IJ, Wu Aw, Chaisson RE. Adherence to antiretroviral and pneumocystic prophylaxis in HIV disease. J Acquir Immune Deficic Syndr 1998;18:117.

35 Tuldra A, Fumaz CR, Ferrer MJ. Prospective randomized two-arm controlled study to determine the efficacy of a specific intervention to improve long-term adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Deficic Syndr 2000;25:221-8.

36 Horne R, Buick D, Fisher M. Perceptions of HIV and HAART as barriers to adherence. 5th AIDS Impact, Brighton, 2001, abstract 105.

37 Walsh JC, Horne R, Dalton M. Reasons for non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy: patients’ perspectives provide evidence of multiple causes. AIDS Care 2001 13,709-720.

38 Horne R and Weinman J (in press). Self-regulation and self-management of asthma: exploring the role of illness perceptions and treatment beliefs in explaining non-adherence to preventer medication. Psychology and Health.

39 Horne R, Sumner S, Jubraj B. Haemodialysis patients’ beliefs about treatment implications for adherence to medication and diet/fluid restrictions. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2001 9,169-175.

41 Horne R and Weinman J. Patients’ beliefs about prescribed medicines and their role in adherence to treatment in chronic physical illness. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1999 47,555-567.

42 Horne R. Compliance, adherence and concordance. In Taylor K and Harding G (Eds), Pharmacy Practice (pp.165-184). London: Taylor & Francis 2001.

43 Horne R, Buick D, Fisher M. Perceptions of HIV and HAART as barriers to adherence. 5th AIDS Impact, Brighton, 2001, abstract 105.

44 Bartlett JA. Addressing the challenges of adherence. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002;29 Suppl 1:S2-10.

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49 Walden et al 1999.

50 Laukamm-Josten et al 2000.

51 Giang et al 2000.

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53 Kuritzkes DR. HIV-1 drug resistance and medication adherence in patients receiving nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). Antiviral Therapy 2001;6(Supplement 1):84.

54 Mannheimer S, Friedland G, Matts J. The consistency of adherence to antiretroviral therapy predicts biologic outcomes for human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons in clinical trials. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:1115-21.

55 Anderson W and Weatherburn P. Taking heart? The impact of combination therapy on the lives of people with HIV(phase 2). London: Sigma Research 1999.

56 Tuldra A, Fumaz CR, Ferrer MJ. Prospective randomized two-arm controlled study to determine the efficacy of a specific intervention to improve long-term adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Deficic Syndr 2000;25:221-8.

57 Muma RD, Ross MW, Parcel G. AIDS Care 1985;7:439.

58 Eldred IJ, Wu Aw, Chaisson RE. Adherence to antiretroviral and pneumocystic prophylaxis in HIV disease. J Acquir Immune Deficic Syndr 1998;18:117.

59 Bangsberg DR, Perry S, Charlesbois ED. Adherence to HAART predicts progression to AIDS. 8th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Chicago, 2001, abstract 483.

60 Burger DM. Therapeutic drug monitoring of nelfinavir 1250mg bid improves therapeutic outcome after one year: results from ATHENA. 2nd International Workshop in Clinical Pharmacology of HIV Therapy, Noordwijk, 2001, abstract 6.2b.

61 Personal communication.

62 Anderson W and Weatherburn P. Taking heart? The impact of combination therapy on the lives of people with HIV(phase 2). London: Sigma Research 1999.

63 Chesney MA. Factors affecting adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2000;30 Suppl 2:S171-6.

64 McPherson-Baker S, Malow RM, Penedo F. Enhancing adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy in non-adherent HIV-positive men. AIDS Care 2000;12(4):399-404.

65 Marinker M. From compliance to concordance: achieving shared goals in medicine taking. London: Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain and Merck Sharp and Dohme 1997.

66 Rehder TL, McCoy LK, Blackwell B. Improving medication compliance by counseling and special prescription container. Am J Hosp Pharm 1980;37(3):379-85.

67 Walsh JC, Sherr L, The Adherence Strategy Group. An assessment of current HIV treatment adherence services in the UK. AIDS Care 2002;14(3):329-34.

68 Alexander D, Johnson D, Mann P. The well patient visit: improving adherence/compliance through a nursing intervention. 1st IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment, Buenos Aires, 2001, abstract 700.

69 Haddad M, Inch C, Glazier RH. Patient support and education for promoting adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS (Cochrane Review). In The Cochrane Library 2001, 1. Oxford: Update Software 2001.

70 Bergman AB, Werner RJ. Failure of children to receive penicillin by mouth. N Engl J Med 1963;268:1334-8.

71 Mannheimer S, Friedland G, Matts J. The consistency of adherence to antiretroviral therapy predicts biologic outcomes for human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons in clinical trials. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:1115-21.

72 Tuldra A, Fumaz CR, Ferrer MJ. Prospective randomized two-arm controlled study to determine the efficacy of a specific intervention to improve long-term adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Deficic Syndr 2000;25:221-8.

73 Gifford AL, Bormann JE, Shively MJ. Effects of group HIV patient education on adherence to antiretrovirals: a randomized controlled trial. 8th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Chicago, 2001, abstract 479.

74 Rigsby MO, Rosen MI, Beauvais JE. Cue-dose training with monetary reinforcement: a pilot study of an antiretroviral adherence intervention. J Gen Intern Med 2000;15(12):841-7.

75 Wall TL, Sorensen JL, Batki SL. Adherence to zidovudine (AZT) among HIV-infected methadone patients: a pilot study of supervised therapy and dispensing compared to usual care. Drug Alcohol Depend 1995;37(3):261-9.

76 Altice FL, Mostashari F, Friedland GH. Trust and acceptance of adherence to antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001;28(1):47-58.

77 Webb DG, Horne R, Pinching AJ. Treatment-related empowerment: preliminary evaluation of a new measure in patients with advanced HIV disease. International Journal of STD and AIDS 2001 12,103-107.

78 Walsh JC, Sherr L, The Adherence Strategy Group. An assessment of current HIV treatment adherence services in the UK. AIDS Care 2002;14(3):329-34.

79 Parkin JM, Murphy M, Anderson J. Tolerability and side-effects of post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection. Lancet 2000;355(9205):722-3.

80 Benn PD, Mercey DE, Brink N. Prophylaxis with a nevirapine-containing triple regimen after exposure to HIV-1. Lancet 2001;357(9257):687-8.

81 Kahn JO, Martin JN, Roland ME. Feasibility of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) against human immunodeficiency virus infection after sexual or injection drug use exposure: the San Francisco PEP study. J Infect Dis 2001;183(5):707-14.

82 Laine C, Newschaffer CJ, Zhang D. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy by pregnant women infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a pharmacy claims-based analysis. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95(2):167-73.

83 Turner BJ, Newschaffer CJ, Zhang D. Antiretroviral use and pharmacy-based measurement of adherence in postpartum HIV-infected women. Med Care 2000;38(9):911-25.

84 Melvin D, Sherr L. The child in the family—responding to AIDS and HIV. AIDS Care 1993;5(1):35-42.

85 Pontali E, Feasi M, Toscanini F. Adherence to combination antiretroviral treatment in children. HIV Clin Trials 2001;2(6):466-73.

86 BHIVA Writing Committee.; BHIVA Executive Committee. British HIV Association (BHIVA) guidelines for the treatment of HIV-infected adults with antiretroviral therapy. HIV Med 2001;2(4):276-313.

87 Claxton AJ, Cramer J, Pierce C. A systematic review of the associations between dose regimens and medication compliance. Clin Ther 2001 Aug;23(8):1296-310.

88 Cahn P. Potential advantages of a compact triple nucleoside regimen; efficacy and adherence with Combivir/abacavir versus Combivir/indinavir in an open-label randomised comparative study (CNAB3014). 40th ICAAC, Toronto, 2000, abstract 695.

89 Bartlett JA, DeMasi R, Quinn J. Overview of the effectiveness of triple combination therapy in antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1 infected adults. AIDS 2001;15:1369-77.

90 Hedge B. Take as prescribed: a study of adherence behaviours in people taking antiretroviral medications. 12th World AIDS Conference, Geneva, 1998, abstract 32348.

91 Paterson DL, Swindells S, Mohr J. Adherence to protease inhibitor therapy and outcomes in patients with HIV infection. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133:21-30.

92 Stansell J, Holtzer C, Mayer S. Factors affecting treatment outcomes in a medication event monitoring system (MEMS) clinical trial of PI-containing HAART. 8th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Chicago, 2001, abstract 478.

93 Tremblay C. HIV evolution during repeated supervised treatment interruptions following early antiretroviral treatment of acute infection. Antiviral Therapy 2001;6(Supplement 1):17.

94 Mannheimer S, Friedland G, Matts J. The consistency of adherence to antiretroviral therapy predicts biologic outcomes for human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons in clinical trials. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:1115-21.

95 Fumaz CR, Tuldra A, Ferrer MJ. Quality of life, emotional status, and adherence of HIV-1-infected patients treated with efavirenz versus protease inhibitor-containing regimens. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002;29(3):244-53.

96 Bartlett JA, DeMasi R, Quinn J. Overview of the effectiveness of triple combination therapy in antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1 infected adults. AIDS 2001;15:1369-77.

97 Mannheimer S, Friedland G, Matts J. The consistency of adherence to antiretroviral therapy predicts biologic outcomes for human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons in clinical trials. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:1115-21.

98 Cahn P. Potential advantages of a compact triple nucleoside regimen; efficacy and adherence with Combivir/abacavir versus Combivir/indinavir in an open-label randomised comparative study (CNAB3014). 40th ICAAC, Toronto, 2000, abstract 695.

99 Bartlett JA. Addressing the challenges of adherence. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002;29(Suppl 1):S2-10. 100 Horne R. Compliance, adherence and concordance. In Taylor K and Harding G (Eds), Pharmacy Practice (pp. 165-184). London: Taylor & Francis 2001.

100 Horne R. Compliance, adherence and concordance. In Taylor K and Harding G (Eds), Pharmacy Practice (pp. 165-184). London: Taylor & Francis 2001.

101 Leider J, Alpert P. Using simulated HIV therapy to assess adherence barriers to combination therapy. 1st IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment, Buenos Aires, 2001, abstract 706.

102 Liu H, Golin CE, Miller LG. A comparison study of multiple measures of adherence to HIV protease inhibitors. Ann Intern Med 2001;134(10):968-77.

103 Mannheimer S, Friedland G, Matts J. The consistency of adherence to antiretroviral therapy predicts biologic outcomes for human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons in clinical trials. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:1115-21.

104 Walsh JC, Mandalia S, Gazzard BG. Responses to a 1 month self-report on adherence to antiretroviral therapy are consistent with electronic data and virological treatment outcome. AIDS 2002;16:269-77.

105 Miller LG, Liu H, Hays RD. How well do clinicians estimate patients’ adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy? J Gen Intern Med 2002;17(1):1-11.

106 Bangsberg DR, Hecht FM, Clague H. Provider assessment of adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001;26(5):435-42.

107 Marzolini C, Telenti A, Decosterd LA. Efavirenz plasma levels can predict treatment failure and central nervous system side effects in HIV-1 infected patients. AIDS 2001;15:71-75.

108 Durant J, Clevenbergh P, Garraffo R. Importance of protease inhibitor plasma levels in HIV-infected patients treated with genotypic-guided therapy: pharmacological data from the Viradapt study. AIDS 2000;14(10):1333-9.

109 Hugen PW, Langebeek N, Burger DM. Assessment of adherence to HIV protease inhibitors: comparison and combination of various methods, including MEMS (electronic monitoring), patient and nurse report, and therapeutic drug monitoring. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002;30(3):324-34.

110 van Rossum AM, Bergshoeff AS, Fraaij PL. Therapeutic drug monitoring of indinavir and nelfinavir to assess adherence to therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21(8):743-7.

111 Burger DM, Aarnoutse RE, Hugen PW. Pros and cons of therapeutic drug monitoring of antiretroviral agents. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2002;15(1):17-22.

112 Wall TL, Sorensen JL, Batki SL. Adherence to zidovudine (AZT) among HIV-infected methadone patients: a pilot study of supervised therapy and dispensing compared to usual care. Drug Alcohol Depend 1995;37(3):261-9.

113 Paterson DL, Swindells S, Mohr J. Adherence to protease inhibitor therapy and outcomes in patients with HIV infection. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133:21-30.

114 Wendel CS, Mohler MJ, Kroesen K. Barriers to use of electronic adherence monitoring in an HIV clinic. Ann Pharmacother 2001;35(9):1010-15.

115 Liu H, Golin CE, Miller LG. A comparison study of multiple measures of adherence to HIV protease inhibitors. Ann Intern Med 2001;134(10):968-77.

116 Parienti JJ, Verdon R, Bazin C. The pills identification test: a tool to assess adherence to antiretroviral therapy. JAMA 2001;285(4):412.

117 Descamps D, Flandre P, Calvez V. Mechanisms of virologic failure in previously untreated HIV-infected patients from a trial of induction-maintenance therapy. Trilege (Agence Nationale de Recherches sur la SIDA 072) Study Team). JAMA 2000;283(2):205-11.

118 Havlir DV, Hellman NS, Petropoulos PJ. Drug susceptibility in HIV infection after viral rebound in patients receiving indinavir-containing regimens. JAMA 2000;283(2):229-34.

119 Paterson DL, Swindells S, Mohr J. Adherence to protease inhibitor therapy and outcomes in patients with HIV infection. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133:21-30.

120 Mannheimer S, Friedland G, Matts J. The consistency of adherence to antiretroviral therapy predicts biologic outcomes for human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons in clinical trials. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:1115-21.

121 Horne R, Weinman J, Hankins M. The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire: the development and evaluation of a new method for assessing the cognitive representation of medication. Psychology and Health 1999 14, -24.

122 Horne R, Buick D, Fisher M. Patients’ beliefs about HAART influence adherence to antiretroviral therapy. 39th ICAAC, San Francisco, abstract 588, 1999.

123 Horne R and Weinman J. Patients’ beliefs about prescribed medicines and their role in adherence to treatment in chronic physical illness. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1999 47,555-567.

124 Haynes RB, McKibbon KA, Kanani R. Systematic review of randomised trials of interventions to assist patients to follow prescriptions for medications. Lancet 1996;348(9059):1180.

125 Roter DL, Hall JA, Merisca R. Effectiveness of interventions to improve patient compliance: a meta-analysis. Med Care 1998;36(8):1138-61.

126 Tuldra A, Fumaz CR, Ferrer MJ. Prospective randomized two-arm controlled study to determine the efficacy of a specific intervention to improve long-term adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Deficic Syndr 2000;25:221-8.

127 Rigsby MO, Rosen MI, Beauvais JE. Cue-dose training with monetary reinforcement: a pilot study of an antiretroviral adherence intervention. J Gen Intern Med 2000;15(12):841-7.

128 Knobel H, Carmona A, Lopez JL. [Adherence to very active antiretroviral treatment: impact of individualized assessment] Spanish. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 1999;17(2):78-81.

129 Gifford AL, Bormann JE, Shively MJ. Effects of group HIV patient education on adherence to antiretrovirals: a randomized controlled trial. 8th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Chicago, 2001, abstract 479.

130 Goujard C, Peyramond D, Bernard N. Improved adherence to antiretroviral therapy at 6 months in HIV-1 infected individuals: impact of a face-to-face treatment education program: the Ciel Bleu study. 1st IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment, Buenos Aires, 2001, abstract 703. 131 Collier AC, Ribaudo H, Feinberg J Randomized study of telephone calls to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy. 9th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Seattle, 2002, abstract 540T.

132 Wall TL, Sorensen JL, Batki SL. Adherence to zidovudine (AZT) among HIV-infected methadone patients: a .pilot study of supervised therapy and dispensing compared to usual care. Drug Alcohol Depend 1995;37(3):261-9.

133 Samet JH, Horton NJ, Dukes K. A randomised controlled trial of a multidimensional intervention to enhance adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients with a history of alcohol problems. 14th International AIDS Conference, Barcelona, 2002, abstract MoPeB3286.

134 Safren SA, Hendriksen ES, Boswell S. Twelve-week outcome of a cue-controlled paging system to increase ART adherence. 14th International AIDS Conference, Barcelona, 2002, abstract WePeB5864.